When considering several factors affecting the quality of gluten-free cookies, choosing the optimal formula based on multi-criteria decision making is complex and not easy. Therefore, in this study the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to optimize the best formula for a gluten-free cookie containing banana peel powder. For this purpose, physicochemical aspects such as texture, aroma, taste, color and porosity, fiber content, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, moisture content and ash content were evaluated to determine the optimal formula for a gluten-free cookie containing banana peel powder. The results showed that the optimal cookie contained 4% banana peel powder with a weight of 0.178. Moreover, the results showed that the rate of inconsistency was 0.77, and since it was less than 0.1 the results are reliable.
AHP, gluten-free cookie, banana peel powder
Benvenuti, S., Pellati, F., Melegari, M. a., & Bertelli, D. (2004). Polyphenols, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and radical scavenging activity of Rubus, Ribes, and Aronia. Journal of Food Science, 69(3).
Cevoli, C., Balestra, F., Ragni, L., & Fabbri, A. (2013). Rheological characterisation of selected food hydrocolloids by traditional and simplified techniques. Food hydrocolloids, 33(1), 142-150.
Chaiya, B., & Pongsawatmanit, R. (2011). Quality of batter and sponge cake prepared from wheat-tapioca flour blends. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci), 45(45), 305-313.
Choo, C. L., & Aziz, N. A. A. (2010). Effects of banana flour and ?-glucan on the nutritional and sensory evaluation of noodles. Food Chemistry, 119(1), 34-40.
Chua, K., Mujumdar, A., Hawlader, M., Chou, S., & Ho, J. (2001). Batch drying of banana pieces—effect of stepwise change in drying air temperature on drying kinetics and product colour. Food Research International, 34(8), 721-731.
Elleuch, M., Besbes, S., Roiseux, O., Blecker, C., Deroanne, C., Drira, N.-E., & Attia, H. (2008). Date flesh: Chemical composition and characteristics of the dietary fibre. Food chemistry, 111(3), 676-682.
Garcia-Amezquita, L. E., Tejada-Ortigoza, V., Heredia-Olea, E., Serna-Saldívar, S. O., & Welti-Chanes, J. (2018). Differences in the dietary fiber content of fruits and their by-products quantified by conventional and integrated AOAC official methodologies. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.
Giuberti, G., Marti, A., Fortunati, P., & Gallo, A. (2017). Gluten free rice cookies with resistant starch ingredients from modified waxy rice starches: Nutritional aspects and textural characteristics. Journal of Cereal Science, 76, 157-164.
González-Montelongo, R., Lobo, M. G., & González, M. (2010). The effect of extraction temperature, time and number of steps on the antioxidant capacity of methanolic banana peel extracts. Separation and Purification Technology, 71(3), 347-355.
Ho, W., & Ma, X. (2017). The state-of-the-art integrations and applications of the analytic hierarchy process. European Journal of Operational Research.
Jacob, J., & Leelavathi, K. (2007). Effect of fat-type on cookie dough and cookie quality. Journal of food Engineering, 79(1), 299-305.
Jan, K. N., Panesar, P., & Singh, S. (2018). Optimization of antioxidant activity, textural and sensory characteristics of gluten-free cookies made from whole indian quinoa flour. LWT, 93, 573-582.
Kethireddipalli, P., Hung, Y. C., Phillips, R., & McWatters, K. (2002). Evaluating the role of cell wall material and soluble protein in the functionality of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) pastes. Journal of Food Science, 67(1), 53-59.
Lazaridou, A., Duta, D., Papageorgiou, M., Belc, N., & Biliaderis, C. G. (2007). Effects of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality parameters in gluten-free formulations. Journal of food engineering, 79(3), 1033-1047.
Lebesi, D. M., & Tzia, C. (2011). Effect of the addition of different dietary fiber and edible cereal bran sources on the baking and sensory characteristics of cupcakes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(5), 710-722.
Molinari, R., Costantini, L., Timperio, A. M., Lelli, V., Bonafaccia, F., Bonafaccia, G., & Merendino, N. (2017). Tartary buckwheat malt as ingredient of gluten-free cookies. Journal of Cereal Science.
O'Shea, N., Arendt, E. K., & Gallagher, E. (2012). Dietary fibre and phytochemical characteristics of fruit and vegetable by-products and their recent applications as novel ingredients in food products. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 16, 1-10.
Ortiz, L., Dorta, E., Lobo, M. G., González-Mendoza, L. A., Díaz, C., & González, M. (2017). Use of banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) peel extract as an antioxidant source in orange juices. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 72(1), 60-66.
Popov-Ralji?, J. V., Mastilovi?, J. S., Lali?i?-Petronijevi?, J. G., Kevrešan, Ž. S., & Demin, M. A. (2013). Sensory and color properties of dietary cookies with different fiber sources during 180 days of storage. Hemijska industrija, 67(1), 123.
Prachayawarakorn, S., Tia, W., Plyto, N., & Soponronnarit, S. (2008). Drying kinetics and quality attributes of low-fat banana slices dried at high temperature. Journal of Food Engineering, 85(4), 509-517.
Prevc, T., Šegatin, N., Ulrih, N. P., & Cigi?, B. (2013). DPPH assay of vegetable oils and model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents. Talanta, 109, 13-19.
Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International journal of services sciences, 1(1), 83-98.
Sardh, E., Gouya, L., Bloomer, J., Balwani, M., Bissell, D., Rees, D. C., . . . Langendonk, J. (2017). Explore: A Prospective, Multinational Natural History Study of Patients with Acute Hepatic Porphyrias (AHP) with Recurrent Attacks: Am Soc Hematology.
Simons, C. W., & Hall III, C. (2018). Consumer acceptability of gluten?free cookies containing raw cooked and germinated pinto bean flours. Food science & nutrition, 6(1), 77-84.
Singleton, V. L., Orthofer, R., & Lamuela-Raventós, R. M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent Methods in enzymology (Vol. 299, pp. 152-178): Elsevier.
Someya, S., Yoshiki, Y., & Okubo, K. (2002). Antioxidant compounds from bananas (Musa Cavendish). Food Chemistry, 79(3), 351-354.
Sudha, M., Baskaran, V., & Leelavathi, K. (2007). Apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols and its effect on the rheological characteristics and cake making. Food chemistry, 104(2), 686-692.
Tibolla, H., Pelissari, F. M., Martins, J. T., Vicente, A., & Menegalli, F. C. (2018). Cellulose nanofibers produced from banana peel by chemical and mechanical treatments: Characterization and cytotoxicity assessment. Food Hydrocolloids, 75, 192-201.
Turabi, E., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2010). Quantitative analysis of macro and micro-structure of gluten-free rice cakes containing different types of gums baked in different ovens. Food Hydrocolloids, 24(8), 755-762.
Zhang, P., Whistler, R. L., BeMiller, J. N., & Hamaker, B. R. (2005). Banana starch: production, physicochemical properties, and digestibility—a review. Carbohydrate polymers, 59(4), 443-458.