Published Dec 10, 2019
Yousaf Ali
Muhammad Haroon Muhammad Abdullah Amin Ullah Khan


Nitrogen is one of the most significant nutrients needed for the proper growth and development of crops and other plants. In synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, solid urea is the largest source of nitrogen (N) as a nutrient. Prilling, granulation, and hybrid systems are the commercial processes used for the production of urea. One of the biggest challenges involved in the determination and implementation of those alternatives is rationalized decision making.  The objective of this research study is to evaluate these processes by considering some of the significant attributes like profit, environmental friendliness, process flexibility and reliability to determine which process is the most optimal. The results show that the prilling process is the best technology for urea production. It is the most optimal process in terms of profitability and reliability, and is therefore widely used in the fertilizer industry. Prilling is not the best option when it comes to the environment when compared to granulation. The granulation process is not the best fit for the commercial production of urea because it is not a reliable process, especially for high agricultural demands and market competition. The results show that it would be very difficult to keep up with the rapid growth of the population using the granulation process. If the environmental and urea quality concerns are considered, the hybrid system is the highest priority and may be preferred.    


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Fertilizers;, Reliability;, Urea Production; AHP, TOPSIS, MCDM, Pakitan

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